From Africa to Jamaica and back: the Atlantic as a dynamic linguistic contact zone

Autores

  • Andrea Hollington University of Cologne

Palavras-chave:

Jamaican, Creole, Diaspora, African influences, language contact, music

Resumo

This paper is concerned with Africa and the African Diaspora in Jamaica from a linguistic perspective. It will shed light on linguistic and communicative practices which illustrate the dynamic and reciprocal relationship between Africa and the Caribbean. My objective is to go beyond the approach of traditional (Caribbean) creolistics, which usually investigates African “substrate” influences in so-called creole languages, and to look at the Atlantic contact area as a dynamic zone with mutual and multidirectional influences. This will involve not only the historical dimension of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, through which the African Diaspora in Jamaica, the Caribbean, and the Americas emerged in the first place, but also a focus on the role of the dynamicity of current language practices on identity, language ideologies, linguistic creativity, and agency. An important aspect in this respect is the emblematicity of African elements, as linguistic elements, which are different from ‘Standard English’ (often perceived as the colonial language and the language of the slave master and oppressor), and which are marked in the context of conscious linguistic choices. Moreover, there is an awareness of the African heritage in Jamaican language practices that informs conscious efforts to use African linguistic elements (for instance, names). For many Jamaicans, their African heritage and identity play an important role. This can be observed, in particular, in Rastafari discourses and in Reggae music and culture, which emphasize a strong focus on Africa. These phenomena are also relevant in (Anglophone) Africa, where Jamaican linguistic practices are adopted through the influence of Reggae, Dancehall, and Rastafari. Therefore, this contribution will also feature some examples of how influences from the Diaspora come back to Africa, for example, in music and youth language practices.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

AMEKA, F. K. Cultural scripting of body parts for emotions. On ‘jealousy’ and related emotions in Ewe. In: ENFIELD, N.; WIERZBICKA, A. (ed.). The Body in Description of Emotion. Special Issue of Pragmatics and Cognition 10, 1-2, 27-55, 2002.

AMEKA, F. K. Ewe serial verb constructions in their grammatical context. In: AIKHENVALD, A. Y.; ROBERT, M. W. D. (ed.). Serial Verb Constructions. A Cross-linguistic Typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. p. 124-143.

ANSALDO, U.; MATTHEWS, S. Deconstructing Creole: The rationale. In: ANSALDO, U.; MATTHEWS, S.; LIM, L. (ed.). Deconstructing Creole. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2007. p. 1-18.

BARSCH, V. Rastafari. Von Babylon nach Afrika. Mainz: VentilVerlag, 2003.

BATIC, G. C. (ed.). Encoding Emotions in African Languages. Munich: Lincom, 2011.

BECKFORD WASSINK, A. Historic low prestige and seeds of change: attitudes toward Jamaican Creole. Language in Society, v. 28, n. 1, p. 57-92, 1999.

CASSIDY, F. G. Jamaica Talk. Three Hundred Years of the English Language in Jamaica. London: MacMillan, 1961.

DEGRAFF, M. Linguists’ most dangerous myth: The fallacy of creole exceptionalism. Language in Society, v. 34, p. 533-591, 2005.

DEVONISH, H. Talking in Tones: A Study of Tone in Afro-European Creole Languages. Christ Church & London: Karia Press & Caribbean Academic Publications, 1989.

DEVONISH, H. Talking Rhythm, Stressing Tones: The Role of Prominence in Anglo-West African Creole Languages. Kingston: Arawak, 2002.

DIMMENDAAL, G. J. Historical Linguistics and the Comparative Study of African Languages. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2011.

FARACLAS, N. (ed.). Agency in the Emergence of Creole Languages. The Role of Women, Renegades, and People of African and Indigenous Descent in the Emergence of the Colonial Era Creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2012.

FARACLAS, N.; LUNA, M. V. B. de. Marginalized peoples, racialized slavery and the emergence of Atlantic Creoles. In: FARACLAS, N. (ed.). Agency in the Emergence of Creole Languages. The Role of Women, Renegades, and People of African and Indigenous Descent in the Emergence of the Colonial Era Creoles. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2012. p. 1-40.

FARQUHARSON, J. T. Folk linguistics and post-colonial language politricks in Jamaica. In: ANCHIMBE, E. A. (ed.). Linguistic Idenitiy in Postcolonial Multilingual Spaces. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2007. p. 248-263.

FARQUHARSON, J. T. The African Lexis in Jamaican: Its Linguistic and Sociohistorical Significance. PhD dissertation, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, 2012.

GYEKYE, K. An Essay on African Philosophical Thought: The Akan Conceptual Scheme. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1995.

HOLLINGTON, A. Traveling Conceptualizations. A cognitive and anthropological linguistic study of Jamaican. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2015.

HOLLINGTON, A. Movement of Jah people: Language ideologies and music in a transnational contact scenario. Critical Multilingualism Studies, v. 4,2, p. 133-153, 2016.

HOLLINGTON, A. Emotions in Jamaican. African conceptualizations, emblematicity and multimodality in discourse and public spaces. In: STORCH, A. (ed.). Consensus and Dissent. Negotiating Emotion in the Public Space. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2017. p. 81-104.

HOLLINGTON, A. Jamaican postcolonial writing practices and metalinguistic discourses as a challenge to established norms and standards. In: STORCH, A.; DEUMERT, A.; SHEPHERD, N. (ed.). Colonial and Decolonial Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020. p. 225-243.

HOLLINGTON, A. The constructed other as a historical source: reclaiming linguistic African roots in the Diaspora. Journal of Postcolonial Linguistics (special issue: the other’s other), p. 41-58, 2021.

KOUWENBERG, S.; LACHARITÉ, D. Echoes of Africa: Reduplication n Caribbean Creole and Niger-Congo languages. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages, v. 19,2, p. 285-331, 2004.

KOUWENBERG, S.; SINGLER, J. V. (ed.). The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.

KÖVECSES, Z. Language, Mind and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

KRÄMER, P. Die französische Kreolistik im 19. Jahrhundert. Rassismus und Determinismus in der kolonialen Philologie. Hamburg: Buske, 2014.

LAKOFF, G.; JOHNSON, M. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1980.

MAKONI, S.; SMITHERMAN, G.; BALL, A. F.; SPEARS, A. K. (ed.). Black Linguistics. Language, Society, and Politics in Africa and the Americas. London/New York: Routledge. 2003.

MCFARLANE, A. A. The epistemological significance of ‘I-an-I’ as a response to Quashie and Anancyism in Jamaican culture. In: MURELL, S.; McFARLANE, A. A. (eds.). Chanting Down Babylon. The Rastafari Reader. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 1998. p. 107-121.

MITTELSDORF, S. African Retentions in Jamaican Creole: A Reassessment. PhD dissertation, Northwestern University, Illinois, 1978.

MOORE, H. L.; SANDERS, T.; KAARE, B. Those Who Play With Fire. Gender, Fertility and Transformation in East and Southern Africa. Oxford: Berg, 2004 [1999].

PARKVALL, M. Out of Africa. African Influences in Atlantic Creoles. London: Battlebridge, 2000.

RAS MWEYA, M. Rastafari Lighthouse. Shashemene Volume 1: Enlightenment on Rastafari, Repatriation & Ethiopia. Shashemene: Ayahso Creative Art Productions. [n.d.]

RUSSELL, T. The Etymology of Jamaica Grammar. Reproduced in: Lalla, Barbara and Jean D’Costa (eds.). Language in Exile. Three Hundred Years of Jamaican Creole. Tuscaloosa AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1990 [1868]. p. 184-201.

SHARIFIAN, F. Cultural Conceptualizations and Language. Theoretical Framework and Applications. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2011.

The Jamaican Language Unit /di Jamiekan Langwij Yuunit (JLU). The Language Attitude Survey of Jamaica. Data Analysis. Jamaican Language Unit, Department of Language, Linguistics and Philosophy, University of the West Indies, Mona, 2005.

Available at: https://www.mona.uwi.edu/dllp/jlu/projects/Report%20for%20Language%20Attitude%20Survey%20of%20Jamaica.pdf. Access in: 09 dez. 2021.

VEENSTRA, T. Serial Verb Constructions in Jamaican Creole and Grammatical Theory. MA Thesis, University of Amsterdam, 1990.

WALICEK, D. E. Thomas Russell’s Grammar of “A Stubborn and Expressive Corruption”. In: KRÄMER, P. (ed.). Ausgewählte Arbeiten der Kreolistik des 19. Jahrhunderts/Selected Works from 19th Century Creolistics. Hamburg: Buske, 2014. p. 55-65.

WINFORD, D. Predication in Caribbean English Creoles. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1993.

Downloads

Publicado

28-12-2021

Como Citar

Hollington, A. (2021). From Africa to Jamaica and back: the Atlantic as a dynamic linguistic contact zone. Revista Do GEL, 18(3), 243–263. Recuperado de https://revistas.gel.org.br/rg/article/view/3336

Edição

Seção

Edição Temática